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Home / Science projects / Bath Salts & Soft Water
  • Bath Salts & Soft Water

    Bath Salts & Soft Water

    Not just the scents are at work here to make your bath more relaxing. Try this project and learn what salts can do. (Adult supervision recommended.)

    What You Need:

    • Plastic mixing bowl
    • 1 cup Epsom salt
    • 1 cup sea salt
    • 1/2 teaspoon glycerin
    • Fragrance or essential oils (craft or health store)
    • Colorant (craft store)
    • Liquid soap

    Note: the salts and glycerin can also be found at drug stores.

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    What You Do:

    Rosemary: stimulating, invigorating, deodorizing
    Lavender: deodorizing and antibacterial
    Chamomile: calming
    Calendula: healing
    Peppermint: stimulating
    Lime: refreshing 
    Note: Essential oils have different grades and must never be taken internally or applied directly on the skin. Use as directed.
    1. Mix together the Epsom salt and sea salt in the mixing bowl.
    2. Add glycerin to the salt mixture and mix through. The glycerin is not necessary, but it helps the colorant and oil get dispersed evenly through the salt.
    3. Add a few drops of fragrance or essential oils. Fragrance oils will smell nice, but essential oils have therapeutic properties. Try using a couple of the following:
    4. Add a few drops of colorant. We recommend getting oil-based skin-safe colorant from a craft store or else leaving out the colorant.
    5. Wet your hands with tap water, add a drop of soap to your hands, then rub together to form a lather. Observe how much lather forms, then rinse off your hands.
    6. Fill a sink with water and add about 1/8 cup of salt mixture to it. Use your hands to stir the water to help the salt dissolve. With your hands still wet from the salt water, add a drop of soap to your hands and rub them together to form a lather. How much lather formed this time?
    7. Store the rest of your salts in a jar, keeping the lid on tight to keep moisture out. Use about 1/4 cup of the salts in your bath.

    What Happened:

    Most likely you found it easier to form lather (and more of it!) when using the water with salt rather than the water with no salt. This is because of the difference between hard water and soft water.

    Most households in America have hard water. Hard water has a high mineral content, usually with calcium and magnesium, whereas soft water contains less of these minerals. Calcium and magnesium ions in the hard water react with the soap, forming insoluble gray flakes called soap scum rather than a lather. This means you need more soap to get clean and the bathtub gets a grimy ring around it from the leftover soap scum. One way to soften hard bath water is to add bath salts. The calcium and magnesium ions in the water are replaced with sodium and potassium ions from the salt, allowing the soap to lather much more easily. (If your home has soft water, you may not notice too much of a difference in how well the soap lathers in the water with your bath salts and the water without the bath salts. However, the salt and essential oils will still have a beneficial effect on your skin.)

    Another benefit of adding bath salts to your bath has to do with osmosis. Osmosis is the movement of water through a membrane (such as your skin) to achieve equilibrium. Your body contains water and salt, whereas an ordinary bath contains mainly water and very little salt. Therefore, water passes through your skin in an effort to balance the concentration of water and salt in you and in your bath. This excess water causes "pruning" (your fingers and toes wrinkle). Adding bath salts to the water causes a more equal balance of salt and water in both you and in the bath, so less water enters your skin and less wrinkling occurs. Salt is also thought to draw impurities and toxins out of your skin and soothes sore muscles!

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By: drean
Date: Nov 12, 2014

it is a good thing to work with