In this issue:
Color Change Magic Tricks
Magic show or chemistry lab? Sometimes it's hard to tell the difference! Chemical reactions often produce spectacular color changes that appear to happen just by magic. Now is your chance to put some tricks up your sleeve and wow your friends with scientific sleight of hand.
(NOTE: Some of the chemicals used in these projects can be hazardous if misused. Use caution when working with chemicals! Read the information on the chemical label before you start, and always wear protective safety equipment such as goggles, gloves, and aprons. Adult supervision required.)
Trick 1 - Confounding Color
Can you get a liquid to change color simply by pouring it into another container?
The secret of this magic color change is pH. Chemicals with a low pH (0-6) are acidic, while those with a high pH (8-14) are basic. (A pH of 7 is neutral: neither acidic nor basic.) Universal indicator is a chemical that changes color in the presence of acids and bases from a pH of 2 to 10. Acids turn the indicator red, pink, orange, and yellow, while bases turn it green, blue, and purple. Vinegar is an acid, so when you poured the indicator solution into the second flask, it turned red. Ammonia is a base, so when you mixed the acidic vinegar solution with ammonia, it raised the pH and the water turned blue. If you had enough vinegar in your last flask, the solution should have turned red again. (If it didn't, try adding a little more vinegar.)
Trick 2 - Mystery Pitcher
Can you pour red "kool-aid" out of a pitcher of water? Try it out and impress your audience - just don't drink the finished product!
Like the universal indicator, phenolphthalein is a pH indicator, but it only turns colors in reaction to bases. When you poured the four glasses back into the pitcher, the phenolphthalein reacted to the sodium carbonate, a base, and turned the solution to red "kool-aid." To change it back to "water," all you had to do was add the acidic vinegar, which turned the phenolphthalein colorless again.
Invisible inks are also called sympathetic inks, and can be made with many different substances. Sometimes they appear when you heat them up; other times another chemical can reveal them. Get creative and see how many kinds of invisible ink you can find.
What other sympathetic inks can you find? Which kind shows up best? Which kind lasts longest?
Inks and dyes are generally made up of a mixture of different colors. Chromatography is a process that lets you separate ink into its individual colors.
As the water creeps up the absorbent paper, it carries the color with it. Some components of the ink travel farther than others, causing the different colors to spread out so you can see them. How many colors do you see? Do the different brands of pens have different colors?
Many dyes are also made up of multiple colors. Try a chromatography experiment with some food coloring. Place a drop of food coloring in some water and hang a filter paper strip so it just barely touches the water. Does it separate into colors? Try mixing more than one color of food coloring and then see if you can separate them again with chromatography.
Every fall we watch amazing chemistry color changes happen all around us. Trees that were green all year suddenly become bright yellow, orange, red, or even purple! How does this happen?
There are three types of chemical color pigments in green leaves: chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. Chlorophyll is the dominant green pigment used throughout the summer in the production of food by photosynthesis. Carotenoids are pigments that give yellow, orange, or brown colors and are present all summer. Anthocyanins cause reds and purples and are produced in the fall. During the summer months, the leaves are so full of chlorophyll that green overpowers any other colors present in the leaves, such as yellow and orange. Even though carotenoids may be present in the leaves, we can't see them because the chlorophyll is so strong.
In the fall the days start to get shorter and the temperature drops, signaling to the tree that it is time to go into storage mode for the winter. The chlorophyll starts to break down, causing the green in the leaves to disappear, and allowing us to see the colors of the carotenoids, which were present all along. Most of the sugars and starches produced by the chlorophyll in the leaves are brought back into the tree, but when excess sugar is left in the leaves, anthocyanins are produced. (Bright light also helps to form these red pigments.)
Eventually a separation layer of cells builds up where the leaf is connected to the branch of the tree, blocking the transport of sugars from the leaf to the tree. When this layer is complete, the wind or the weight of the leaves themselves will cause the leaves to fall from the tree. Beneath the tree the layer of fallen leaves decomposes throughout the winter, returning nutrients back to the soil, which makes the topsoil fertile for more plants to grow in the next year.
Explore the pigments inside a green leaf by doing a leaf chromatography experiment! The setup is similar to the chromatography project above, but this time you use rubbing alcohol to help break down the chlorophyll.
pH is important in everyday life:
- Toothpaste is a base that cancels the effect of the acids in your mouth
- Medicine for upset stomachs, like Tums, contain bases that help neutralize the acid in your stomach
- Many insect stings are acidic. The pain can be relieved by using a base, like baking soda.
Musical Spy. In World War I a German spy named Courtney de Rysbach traveled Britain as a very popular entertainer. He wrote messages in invisible ink on sheets of music. He was eventually caught and spent the rest of the war in jail.
- Watch an animated movie and take a fun quiz about why leaves change color in the fall.
- Play around with pH when you serve drinks to aliens in this fun online game.
- Learn about how spies have used invisible inks through the ages!