wind turbine kit,
blood type test,
With science fair season coming up as well as many end of
the year projects, students are often required to write a research paper or a report on their project. Use this guide to help you in the process
from finding a topic to revising and editing your final paper.
Sometimes one of the largest barriers to writing a research paper is trying
to figure out what to write about. Many times the topic is supplied by the
teacher, or the curriculum tells what the student should research and
write about. However, this is not always the case. Sometimes the student is
given a very broad concept to write a research paper on, for
example, water. Within the category of water, there are many topics and
subtopics that would be appropriate. Topics about water can include anything
from the three states of water, different water sources, minerals found in
water, how water is used by living organisms, the water cycle, or how to find water
in the desert. The point is that "water" is a very large topic and would
be too broad to be adequately covered in a typical 3-5 page research paper.
When given a broad category to write about, it is important to narrow it
down to a topic that is much more manageable. Sometimes research needs to be
done in order to find the best topic to write about. (Look for searching tips in
"Finding and Gathering Information.") Listed below are some tips and guidelines
for picking a suitable research topic:
- Pick a topic within the category that you find interesting. It makes it
that much easier to research and write about a topic if it interests you.
- You may find while researching a topic that the details of the topic are
very boring to you. If this is the case, and you have the option to do this,
change your topic.
- Pick a topic that you are already familiar with and research further
into that area to build on your current knowledge.
- When researching topics to do your paper on, look at how much
information you are finding. If you are finding very little information on
your topic or you are finding an overwhelming amount, you may need to
rethink your topic.
- If permissible, always leave yourself open to changing your topic. While
researching for topics, you may come across one that you find really
interesting and can use just as well as the previous
topics you were searching for.
- Most importantly, does your research topic fit the guidelines set forth
by your teacher or curriculum?
Finding and Gathering Information
There are numerous resources out there to help you find information on the
topic selected for your research paper. One of the first places to begin
research is at your local library. Use the Dewey Decimal System or ask the
librarian to help you find books related to your topic. There are also a variety
of reference materials, such as encyclopedias, available at the library.
A relatively new reference resource has become available with the power
of technology - the Internet. While the Internet allows the user to access a
wealth of information that is often more up-to-date than printed materials such
as books and encyclopedias, there are certainly drawbacks to using it.
It can be hard to tell whether or not a site contains factual information or
just someone's opinion. A site can also be dangerous or inappropriate for
students to use. To help in your search for safe sites that contain
factual information, consult our guide to using the
Internet for research.
You may find that certain science concepts and science terminology are not
easy to find in regular dictionaries and encyclopedias. A
science dictionary or
science encyclopedia can help you find more in-depth and relevant
information for your science report. If your topic is very technical or
specific, reference materials such as medical dictionaries and chemistry
encyclopedias may also be good resources to use.
If you are writing a report for your science fair project, not only will you
be finding information from published sources, you will also be generating your
own data, results, and conclusions. Keep a journal that tracks and records your
experiments and results. When writing your report, you can either write out your
findings from your experiments or display them using
graphs or charts.
*As you are gathering information, keep a working bibliography of where you
found your sources. Look under "Citing Sources" for more information.
This will save you a lot of time in the long run!
Most people find it hard to just take all the
information they have gathered from their research and write it out in paper
form. It is hard to get a starting point and go from the beginning to the end.
You probably have several ideas you know you want to put in your paper, but you
may be having trouble deciding where these ideas should go. Organizing your
information in a way where new thoughts can be added to a subtopic at any time
is a great way to organize the information you have about your topic. Here are
two of the more popular ways to organize information so it can be used in a
- Graphic organizers such as a web or mind map. Mind maps are
basically stating the main topic of your paper, then branching off into as many
subtopics as possible about the main topic. Enchanted Learning has a list of
several different types of
as well as information on how to use them and what topics fit best for each
type of mind map and graphic organizer.
- General to specific list. This method is similar to using a mind map
except it is used in a linear list fashion by stating the topic and then
listing the supporting details underneath. The general to specific list
method works best when using a computer because ideas can easily be added
without the information becoming "squashed" as would happen when it is
written out. This method works in the
I. Topic ~ Water as a solid in nature
- Subtopic: Glaciers - large masses of ice on land
- Sub-Subtopic: Low temperatures and adequate amounts of snow
are needed to form glaciers.
- Sub-Subtopic: Glaciers move large amounts of earth and
- Sub-Subtopic: Two basic types of glaciers: valley and
- Subtopic: Icebergs - large masses of ice floating on liquid water
II. Topic ~ Water as a liquid in nature
Different Formats For Your Paper
Depending on your topic and your writing preference,
the layout of your paper can greatly enhance how well the information on your
topic is displayed.
- Process. This method is used to explain how something is done or
how it works by listing the steps of the process. For most science fair
projects and science experiments, this is the best format. Reports for
science fairs need the entire project written out from start to finish. Your
report should include a title page, statement of purpose, hypothesis,
materials and procedures, results and conclusions, discussion, and credits
and bibliography. If applicable, graphs, tables, or charts should be
included with the results portion of your report.
- Cause and effect. This is another common science experiment
research paper format. The basic premise is that because event X happened,
event Y happened.
- Specific to general. This method works best when trying to draw
conclusions about how little topics and details are connected to support one
main topic or idea.
- Climatic order. Similar to the "specific to general" category,
here details are listed in order from least important to most important.
- General to specific. Works in a similar fashion as the method for
organizing your information. The main topic
or subtopic is stated first, followed by supporting details that give more
information about the topic.
- Compare and contrast. This method works best when you wish to
show the similarities and/or differences between two or more topics. A block
pattern is used when you first write about one topic and all its details and
then write about the second topic and all its details. An alternating
pattern can be used to describe a detail about the first topic and then
compare that to the related detail of the second topic. The block pattern
and alternating pattern can also be combined to make a format that better
fits your research paper.
When writing a research paper, you must cite your sources!
Otherwise you are plagiarizing (claiming someone else's ideas as your own) which
can cause severe penalties from failing your research paper assignment in
primary and secondary grades to failing the entire course (most colleges and
universities have this policy). To help you avoid plagiarism, follow these simple
- Find out what format for citing your paper your
teacher or curriculum wishes you to use. One of the most widely used and
widely accepted citation formats by scholars and schools is the Modern
Language Association (MLA) format. (Here are several
examples of how to
various sources in your bibliography using MLA format. This site
also links to other citation styles, including the
American Psychological Association (APA) format, which is another widely
used format.) We recommended
that you do an Internet search for the
most recent format of the citation style you will be using in your paper.
- Keep a working bibliography when researching your topic. Have a document
in your computer files or a page in your notebook where you write down every
source that you found and may use in your paper. (You probably will not use
every resource you find, but it is much easier to delete unused sources
later rather than try to find them four weeks down the road.) To make this
process even easier, write the source down in the citation format that will
be used in your paper. No matter what citation format you use, you should
always write down title, author, publisher, published date, page numbers
used, and if applicable, the volume and issue number.
- When collecting ideas and information from your sources, write the
author's last name at the end of the idea. When revising and formatting your
paper, keep the author's last name attached to the end of the idea, no
matter where you move that idea. This way, you won't have to go back and try
to remember where the ideas in your paper came from.
- There are two ways to use the information in your paper: paraphrasing and
quotes. The majority of your paper will be paraphrasing the
information you found. Paraphrasing is basically restating the idea being
used in your own words. As a general rule of thumb, no more than two
of the original words should be used in sequence when paraphrasing
information, and similes should be used for as many of the words as possible
in the original passage
without changing the meaning of the main point. Sometimes, you may find
something stated so well by the original author that it would be best to use
the author's original words in your paper. When using the author's original
words, use quotation marks only around the words being directly quoted and
work the quote into the body of your paper so that it makes sense
grammatically. Search the Internet for more rules on
Revising and Editing Your Paper
Revising your paper basically means you are fixing grammatical errors or
changing the meaning of what you wrote. After you have written the rough draft
of your paper, read through it again to make sure the ideas in your paper flow
and are cohesive. You may need to add in information, delete extra information, use a thesaurus to find a better
word to better express a concept, reword a sentence, or just make sure your
ideas are stated in a logical and progressive order.
After revising your paper, go back and edit it, correcting the
capitalization, punctuation, and spelling errors - the mechanics of writing. If
you are not 100% positive a word is spelled correctly, look it up in a
dictionary. Ask a parent or teacher
for help on the proper usage of commas, hyphens, capitalization, and numbers.
You may also be able to find the answers to these questions by doing an Internet
search on writing mechanics or by checking you local library for a book on writing
It is also always a good
idea to have someone else read your paper. Because this person did not write the
paper and is not familiar with the topic, he or she is more likely to catch mistakes
or ideas that do not quite make sense. This person can also
give you insights or suggestions on how to reword or format your paper to make
it flow better or convey your ideas better.